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Chemical bonding technology is dominated by two adhesive families, two distinctly different surface-joining formulations. There’s the viscous and potentially toxic group, a series of compounds we call solvent based adhesives. In the other corner of the adhesion ring, water based adhesives provide an alternative bonding option. The two groups are undoubtedly both accomplished joining agents, but their contrasting base structures do set them apart. Let’s take a closer look at those differences.


Solvent VS Water Curing Technology

There’s a chance we’d be accused of jumping the proverbial gun if we were to immediately launch into a comparative analysis. Instead, just to bring us all up to speed, let’s open with a concise description that covers both compounds. Well, the two labels really only serve to inform us of one thing. They tell us how the active fixing agents are carried. On closer inspection, water based adhesives are waterborne, in that the watery carrying base evaporates as the resinous fluid is applied. In essence, the adhesive cures as it dries. Similarly, solvent-based adhesives rely on liquefied polymers as the active ingredient, one that cures as the solvent dissipates.


Base-Oriented Adhesive Differences

Solvent carriers are the ever-popular products that deliver industrial-strength bonds, but look out for noxious fumes when the substance is being applied. Meanwhile, paste-like watery adhesives have long since given impotent starches the push in favor of strong acetates and flexible synthetic elastomers. The substrate used with a water base is just as tacky as the alternative solvent based product, but it’s free of fumes and non-flammable, thus safe adhesion is underlined.


Conversely, special precautions need to be followed when solvent based adhesives are used to bond surfaces. These include provisions for adequate ventilation so that respiratory ailments can be avoided. Of course, the water carrying solution isn’t perfect, either. It’s prone to weathering, which means the formula can deteriorate when temperature extremes and rain penetration get out of hand. But, on tackling a waterborne adhesive once more, the inherently safe fluid is easy to wipe away and clean, which is something that can’t always be said for the solvent carrier.


The differences go on like this, like a tug-o-war on a chemical scale. The solvent form is basically a threat to the environment, a hazard that can trouble breathing and introduce a fire risk to a bonding project. Therefore, although many of these material characteristics can be equalized by purchasing proprietary formulations, a solvent base will always carry a safety-related question mark above its package.


If you have requirement or need more information of solvent-based adhesive and water-based adhesive, I recommend you to visit Great Eastern Resins Industrial Co. Ltd. – they are the professional adhesive manufacturer in the industry. Today, contact with GRECO for more details of industrial adhesive.


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5 Top Advantages of Fiber Laser Cutting

On February 12, 2019, in Machine, Manufacturer, by Jasmie K.

There is a time and place for different types of laser cutting. Here are five top reasons customers choose fiber laser cutting services.


The utilization of fiber optics continues to evolve. The introduction of fiber optics into the digital, data driven world has allowed for the increase in data transfer speeds and amount. Instead of sending information through phone lines or coper wiring, fiber optics are made up of strands of diodes and transmitted using beams of light. The ability to send beams of light has shifted to lasers as the amount of light channeled and amplified through the fiber optic cabling allows for a powerful light beam, 200 percent more efficient than that of a CO2 laser, without the pricey optical mirrors commonly found in laser cutting systems. For businesses looking to invest in laser cutting or in need of laser cutting services, there are many advantages in turning to fiber laser cutting over the alternatives. Here are the top five advantages.


  1. Less Expensive

Possibly the most valuable advantage of fiber laser cutting is the price. The cost overhead for this technology represents a massive savings, both in initial purchase and over the lifetime of the laser. For starters, it doesn’t require expensive optical mirrors as is the case with other laser technology. Additionally, the focusing lens is not exposed, but instead sealed within the cutting head. Due to this, the focusing lens will, when properly maintained, last the lifetime of the fiber optics, instead of becoming damaged and requiring continual replacements, which is the case with other laser applications.


  1. No Moving Parts

Moving parts lead to heightened maintenance and an increase in operating costs. As light pulses are sent through the fiber optic cabling, it does not require moving mirrors in order to generate the necessary laser. Other forms of lasers utilize a rapidly moving mirror in order to heighten the laser’s power. To extend the life of the mirror regular maintenance is needed. This causes a slowdown in productivity. However, if regular maintenance is not performed, the chance of material damage increases, which not only takes the laser offline but it increases the cost to operate.


  1. Boost in Cutting Speed

Another advantage in using fiber optic laser cutting is the increase in cutting speed. When cutting a straight line of 1mm in thickness, a fiber based laser can cut three times faster than that of a traditional laser. This includes cutting through materials such as stainless steel. When cutting through 2mm thickness the time improvement does drop to twice as fast, but never the less, it still represents a sizable improvement.


  1. Cutting Reflective Material

One of the major problems when using a traditional laser is in regards to reflective material. There is the chance a laser may bounce off the reflective material, which in turn will damage the equipment. Due to this, traditional lasers are not often used when cutting brass, aluminum and copper. With fiber optic lasers though, this reflective material problem is no longer an issue, which in turn allows for the cutting of these materials.


  1. Higher Electrical Efficiency

Conventional CO2 lasers require a considerable amount more energy to product the laser beam. In fact, a 2 kW fiber laser cutting setup uses a third of the power as a 4 kW CO2 machine. This means the fiber optic configuration will not only save power each and every time it is used, but due to the lower energy requirements it helps increase the life expectancy of the hardware as well.



Each laser type has a time and a place. However, these are five of the most substantial benefits a fiber optics laser has over other, more conventional CO2 lasers.


If you have requirement or need more information of fiber laser cutters, I recommend you to visit Tailift Co., Ltd. – their fiber laser cutting machine has earned a reputation internationally for robustness, quality and performance. Their laser cutting equipment is designed for a wide range of metal working applications. Now, contact with Tailift laser cutter manufacturer for the best laser cutting solution!


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There are three different types of electrical discharge machining. The one described above is called sinker EDM. It is also known as die sinking, cavity type EDM, volume EDM, traditional EDM, or Ram EDM. Using Die sink EDM allows users to produce complex shapes. This method requires electrodes (often made from graphite or copper) that are pre-machined to have the necessary shape. This electrode is then sunk into the workpiece, creating the negative version of its original shape.


The second type of electrical discharge machining is called wire EDM and is also known as wire erosion, wire burning or spark EDM. In Wire EDM a thin wire is used to cut the work piece. In this case, the wire works as the electrode. During the machining, the wire is constantly coming from an automated feed with a spool. If the cut has to be made in the middle rather than the outside of the workpiece, small hole drilling EDM is used to make a hole in the workpiece through which the wire is threaded afterwards.


The wire is held with diamond guides. Usually the liquid is deionized water. The wire is often made from brass or copper.


The last type of electrical discharge machining is called hole drilling EDM. As the name suggests, this process is used for drilling holes. Compared with traditional drilling methods, EDM is able to machine extremely small and deep holes. Additionally, EDM drilled holes don’t need any deburring. The electrodes in this process are tubular and the dielectric fluid is fed through the electrode itself.


In general, every conductive material can be machined with electrical discharge machining. Common materials include metals or metal alloys such as hardened steel, titanium, and composites.


Typically, the electrodes for die sinking EDM are made of copper or graphite. The main factors that influence the decision for an electrode material are the electrode’s conductivity and its resistance to erosion. Graphite has the advantage that it is easier to machine than copper. However, copper is highly conductive and strong. Brass, an alloy of cupper and zink, is often used for wire EDM or small tubular electrodes.


Contrary to electrodes for die sinking, the wire used for wire EDM does not have to offer good resistance characteristics, as new wire is fed constantly duting the cutting.


Advantages: When Applying EDM Makes Sense

The main advantage of electrical discharge machining is that it can be used on any material as long as it is conductive. It is therefore possible to machine workpieces made from tungsten carbide or titanium that are hard to machine with traditional cutting methods. Another advantage of electrical discharge machining is the lack of mechanical force put into the workpiece. Fragile outlines are easier to produce because there is no high cutting force needed to remove the material.


EDM also allows for shapes and depths that are impossible to reach with a cutting tool. Especially deep processing where the tool length to diameter ration would be very high is a usual application for EDM. Sharp internal corners, deep ribs and narrow slots are other specialties of electrical discharge machining. Another argument for using EDM is that the surface finish is usually better than with traditional methods. Electrical discharge machining produces surfaces with a fine finish and high precision.


Moreover, EDM allows users to machine hardened workpieces. Whereas other machining techniques need to be executed before the workpiece is hardened with heat treatment, electrical discharge machining can be applied on the hardened material as well. Thus, any potential deformation from heat treatment machining can be avoided.


However, there are numerous examples where electrical discharge machining is not the right solutions. EDM is a high precision machining method. EDM is a rather slow method compared to traditional machining. High-volume tasks are therefore not suited for this method. At the same time, the electro thermal process requires high power consumption.


Similar to traditional chipping methods, the tool life in EDM is not endless. In sinker EDM, the electrode is also vulnerable to erosion. Because of the tool wear, the electrode has to be replaced regularly. In sinker EDM, it is also necessary to produce the correctly shaped electrodes before the workpiece can be machined. This is an additional step compared to machining processes with traditional cutting tools.


If you have interest or requirement of electric discharge machine, I recommend you to visit Ocean Technologies Co., Ltd. – they are the professional manufacturer of specializing in EDM machines. Welcome to check out their website and feel free to contact with Ocean for more details!


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There isn’t another material on the planet that is as versatile, durable, flexible, and lightweight as plastic containers. By various manufacturing techniques, they can be molded into any desirable form. From houses to supermarkets, plastic containers are extremely useful and are used almost everywhere.


Before we understand why plastic containers triumph over other materials, let us first have a look at the different types of plastic containers used in our everyday lives:


Plastic Canisters

Made from high-density polyethylene (HDPE), plastic canisters don’t get damaged with heat or water, unlike other materials. Moreover, they are airtight and preserve the freshness of the content stored in them.


Plastic Bottles

Usually made from polyethylene terephthalate (PET), plastic bottles are lightweight, which makes them easier to carry around. They also provide excellent thermal insulation. This makes them an ideal choice for storing cold or hot liquids.


Plastic Trays

From shopping trays to trays used in canteens and food service industries, you can find plastic trays used almost everywhere. They can be made from polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polypropylene (PE) or high-density polyethylene (HDPE) plastic. They are one of the best ways to transport goods and can be used and washed multiple times.


Plastic Food Containers

Made from polyvinyl chloride (PVC) or polypropylene (PE), plastic food containers keep food properly sealed. One can either store perishables by freezing them or cook food and then store it without contaminating or spoiling it.


If these weren’t reasons enough to choose plastic containers, let’s look at some incredible benefits that plastic containers have to offer:


  1. Low Maintenance

Plastic containers are extremely durable and do not require high maintenance like other materials. Containers made of metal or glass may develop cracks due to extreme weather conditions. In addition, there are chances of metal containers to scrape or rust after regular usage. This, however, isn’t the case with containers made from plastic.


  1. Cost-Effective

Plastic is economical when compared to wood or metal. Containers made from plastic can be bought at a very low cost. Moreover, plastic containers are sturdy and are less likely to be damaged. Imagine the expenses saved on repair and maintenance.


  1. Prevent Food Waste

Plastic containers help preserve the flavor, texture, and nutrients of food by locking out air. They prevent the absorption of nasty odors and flavors which could lead to food waste. What’s more, they can help preserve food freshness as it creates a vacuum and controls the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide.


  1. Plastics are Recyclable

Plastic is a highly versatile material and can be reused and recycled many times. When compared to glass containers, the recycling of plastic is growing. Each year over 40% of plastic containers made are recycled, as compared to 20% of glass ones.


The benefits of plastic containers are numerous! These benefits are, in fact, the reasons for their popularity despite the competition from glass, metal, and wood containers.


If you have interest or requirement of food grade plastic containers, I recommend you to visit Marathon Enterprise Co., Ltd. – they are the professional manufacturer of vacuum forming plastic products. You can find a wide range of vacuum forming plastic processing products on their website. To get more information of food containers, no hesitation, contact Marathon at +886-3-3590801.


Article Source: PLASTIVISION


Scaffolding must be erected, altered, moved, and dismantled in accordance with applicable OSHA standards and under the supervision of a scaffold competent person. Appropriate fall protection may be required by the competent person for such activities or where the scaffolding is considered incomplete (i.e. missing parts due to area obstructions).


Scaffold components cannot be mixed if they are from different manufacturers unless they fit together without force. Scaffold components of dissimilar metals should not be used together, unless the competent person has determined that galvanic action will not reduce the strength of any component.


Base / Footing Base Plate

Supported scaffold poles, legs, posts, frames, and uprights shall bear on base plates and mud sills (or other adequate firm foundation). The size of the mud sill shall be based on the type of soil the scaffold will be erected upon.


The base and mud still must provide a solid surface for the feet to sit upon so that the scaffold doesn’t sink, move, settle, or shift. Unstable objects, such as bricks, cinder blocks, buckets, scrap lumber, etc., shall not be used to support or level scaffolds. Screw jacks must be used to level scaffolding on uneven surfaces. The maximum extension for a screw jack is 18 inches high. Most screw jacks will have a built-in stop so that the maximum height cannot be exceeded. (For mobile scaffolds, the maximum height of the screw jack is 12 inches.)


Plumb / Level / Square

Supported scaffold poles, legs, posts, frames, and uprights shall be plumb (i.e.  Scaffold perfectly vertical) and braced to prevent swaying and displacement. Cross bracing is required on both front and back sides of each scaffold buck or frame.


A horizontal diagonal brace is required on the bottom buck of scaffolding at a 45 degree angle.


To check a scaffold for being plumb, use a level on two opposite uprights. To make sure the scaffold is level, use a level on a horizontal support or bearer. To ensure the scaffold is “square”, use a tape measure and measure the distance between opposite corners. The two measurements should be equal.



Scaffold frames (i.e. bucks) must be joined together vertically by coupling or stacking pins (or equivalent means).


Scaffolds with a height-to-base width ratio of more than four to one shall be restrained from tipping over by guying, tying, bracing, or equivalent means. Guys, ties and braces shall be installed where horizontal members support both inner and outer legs. Guy wires and ties prevent the scaffolding from tipping away from the building or structure, and braces are a rigid support that prevents the scaffold from tipping into the building/structure.


Vertical Securing

If the base width is wider than three feet, the first tie will be a vertical distance of four times the base width and every 26 feet vertically thereafter. For example, if the base width is 5 feet, the first vertical tie will be (5 feet x 4) 20 feet from the ground.


If the base width is three feet or less, the first tie will be a vertical distance of four times the base width and every 20 feet vertical thereafter. For example, if the base width is three feet, the first vertical tie will be (3 feet x 4) 12 feet from the ground.


Horizontal Securing

For long (running) scaffolds, guys, ties, and braces shall be installed at each end of the scaffold and at horizontal intervals not to exceed 30 feet.


Platforms / Decking

Platform/decking planks may be made of solid sawn wood, manufactured wood, manufactured steel, or manufactured aluminum. If solid sawn wood is used, it must be scaffold grade.


Note: Once a plank has been used as a mud sill, it cannot be used as decking again.


Scaffolds must be fully planked or decked whenever possible. The space between the last plank and the uprights cannot exceed 9 1/2 inches. The space between planks cannot exceed 1 inch, except where necessary for obstructions. Platforms and walkways, in general, must be at least 18 inches wide.


Where the platform will not be more than 14 inches from the face of the work (18 inches for plastering and lathing operations), fall protection is not required. The face of the work (ex. the side of a building) basically serves as the fall protection system.


The ends of each platform must be cleated or restrained by hooks (or equivalent) to prevent accidental displacement, or must extend at least 6 inches over the centerline of the support.


  • The maximum extension of the plank cannot be more than 12 inches for planks that are 10 feet long or less.
  • For planks that are greater than 10 feet long, the maximum extension past the overlap centerline of the support is 18 inches.
  • Where the platform will not be more than 14 inches from the face of the work (18 inches for plastering and lathing operations), fall protection is not required. The face of the work (ex. the side of a building) basically serves as the fall protection system.


Where a platform changes direction (ex. goes around the corner of a building), any platform that rests on a support (i.e. bearer) at an angle other than a right angle, shall be laid first. Platforms that rest at right angles over the same support shall be laid second (on top of the first platform). The objective is to reduce the tripping hazard by having the ends of the top layer of planks form a straight line, rather than a saw-toothed edge, which increases tripping hazards.


Wooden platforms (i.e. decking, planks) must not be painted to hide defects. They may, however, be treated periodically with clear preservatives, fire-retardants, and/or slip-resistant finishes.



Proper access must be provided to access the work platform of the scaffold.


  • Ladders that are a part of the scaffolding system, such as hook-on and attachable ladders shall be positioned so that the bottom rung is not more than 24 inches above the supporting level.
  • Portable extension ladders used to access the work platform must meet OSHA design and use criteria, which includes securing the ladder to the scaffold at the top and bottom and having the ladder extend at least three feet past the landing surface. Ladders must also be positioned so as not to tip the scaffold.
  • Stair towers must have hand and midrails on each side of the stairway. Stairs must be at least 18 inches wide and have a landing platform at least 18 inches long at each level. Stair treads must be of slip-resistant design. The riser height must be uniform, and the stair angle must be between 40 and 60 degrees from the horizontal.
  • Where the frame of the scaffold will be used for access, the manufacturer must specify in writing that it was designed for such purposes. Design features include a rest platform every 35 feet, rungs at least 11 1/2 inches wide (8 inches for ladders built into the frame), and uniform rung spacing not exceeding 16 3/4 inches.


Fall Protection


Guardrail Systems

At Virginia Tech, a fall protection system (i.e. guardrail system) must be installed on all scaffolds with a working height greater than four feet. The guardrail system shall be installed along all open sides and ends of the platform before being used as a work platform by employees. One exception is when the scaffold platform is within 14 inches of the face of the work.


Top rails (manufactured after 1/1/2000) must be 38 – 45 inches above the platform surface. (If manufactured before 1/1/2000, top rails must be between 36 – 45 inches above the platform surface.) Top rails must be capable of supporting at least 200 pounds applied in a downward or outward direction.


Note: Cross bracing is acceptable in place of a top rail when the crossing point of the two braces is between 38 – 48 inches above the work platform. It cannot serve as both a midrail and a top rail.


Midrails must be installed at a height approximately midway between the toprail and the platform surface. Midrails must be capable of supporting at least 150 pounds applied in a downward or outward direction.


Note: Cross bracing is acceptable in place of a midrail when the crossing point of the two braces is between 20 – 30 inches above the work platform. It cannot serve as both a midrail and a top rail (as incorrectly done in this picture).


Personal Fall Arrest Systems

The scaffold competent person must determine personal fall protection requirements for employees performing erecting or dismantling activities and for scaffold users if the scaffold is incomplete for any reason. Personal fall protection must be required and provided by the employer where the installation and use of such protection is feasible and does not create a greater hazard.


Personal fall arrest systems used on scaffolds are required when the guardrail system is incomplete or does not provide adequate protection. Lanyards or connecting devices must be connected to a vertical lifeline (1st choice), a horizontal lifeline (2nd choice), or a structural member of the scaffold (last choice).


Falling Object Protection



Toeboards must be installed on work platforms where materials or tools will be in use. Toeboards must be installed not more than 1/4 inch above the platform and securely fastened. They may be made of solid material or mesh with openings no greater than 1 inch. Toeboards must be capable of withstanding at least 50 pounds applied in a downward or outward direction.


Nets and Platforms

Additional protection from falling debris and other small objects must be provided in areas where personnel will be in the vicinity of scaffolds. Such protection may be in the form of:


  • Barricades to keep personnel out of a hazardous area, mesh
  • Screens which are erected between the toe board and hand rail of the work platform,
  • Debris nets to catch materials before they hit the ground, or
  • Canopy structures made of solid materials.
  • Large or heavy materials stored on the scaffold platform must be located away from the edges of the work platform and secured, if necessary.


Hard Hats

Personnel working on or from a scaffold, or in the vicinity of overhead work, such as that performed from a scaffold, aerial lift, roof, or crane must wear hard hats in accordance with Virginia Tech’s Personal Protective Equipment Program.


If you need more information about scaffolding manufacturers, I recommend you to visit Sucoot Co., Ltd. – they specialize in industrial scaffolding accessories & formwork parts. Their industrial scaffolding products are engineered for safety, strength and flexibility to meet international standards within this industrial scaffolding industry, which are important for structural engineers, scaffolding factories and formwork specialists.


With their technical knowledge, ready-to-ship inventory and full-service solution, Sucoot is able to serve customers with confidence and enthusiasm. Now, contact with Sucoot for more details of scaffolding manufacturers.


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A diamond grinding wheel dresser is a vital tool in the proper care and maintenance of any grinding wheel. Regular maintenance ensures that your diamond grinding wheel will perform at maximum efficiency, trouble-free, and enjoy a long, sustainable life.


When selecting any dressing tool, including a diamond wheel dressing stick, it’s important to choose the tool that is the proper shape, size, and quality for the grinding wheel. If you don’t know which tool will work best with your application, discuss it with a supplier’s knowledgeable customer service department to determine exactly what you need.


Dressing the wheel will knock off any abrasive particles from the wheel’s surface. This ensures that it’s balanced and concentric, which minimizes any vibration it may get from having too much buildup on the surface. These particles, if left on the surface, have the potential to cover up surface abrasives, making them dull and ineffective. Exposing them by removing particles is essentially a sharpening process, since the fresh abrasive grains are each cutting tools in their own right.


A diamond grinding wheel dresser serves another important function, and that is to clean the grinding wheel. Choosing a dresser or grinding wheel dressing stick that is softer than the grinding wheel will not dislodge any abrasive particles, and can result in a loaded wheel. This is why selecting the proper diamond dressing tools are crucial to a successful grinding wheel dressing.


There are also different types of dressers to consider. Star dressers feature long handles and serrated discs. Diamond dressers are generally preferred because of their superior strength. They also have shorter handles and are great for both dressing and truing. They are also available in single point and multi-set clusters to blade-specific type and a reputable supplier will be able to determine which design to use based on your project. For example, a single point tool is easy to use and encourages a more pronounced rotation and higher frequency, delivering precise results.


Other benefits of a diamond grinding wheel dresser include a fast dressing of even the most complex wheels, a constant operation that boasts high-precision, and optimal dresser versatility. This type of dresser tool also means a decreased dressing cost per project, making it a cost-effective solution to all of your dressing needs.


If you have requirement of diamond dressing tools, one of diamond tools manufacturer that I recommend you is Best Diamond Industrial Co., Ltd. – they are the professional manufacturer of specializing in various diamond and CBN tools. Now, come and visit Besdia for more dressing tools!


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Some industries require the use of liquid or gas to complete a job, such as the medical and dentistry fields. Despite the differences in the fields that operate this type of equipment, the fact remains that the equipment needs to be able to start and stop liquid or gas as needed. That’s where solenoid valves come into play.


Solenoid valves help to control the flow of liquid or gas. These valves are incorporated into the equipment so that the equipment can be used safely and efficiently. What a solenoid valve does is use a plunger to open or close the valve, either allowing the liquid to flow through or sealing it off without any leaks. This is an extremely important process in the automation of fluid and gas control, and there are different types of solenoid valves that do the same job in different ways.


The normally closed solenoid valve is one way to control the flow of liquid or gas. This valve is similar to other solenoid valves in that it either stops or starts the flow of the liquid, but it differs in the process it uses to do this. When a normally closed solenoid valve is not powered, the plunger is down, effectively sealing the valve and preventing the flow of liquid or gas. Once the normally closed solenoid valve is powered or energized, the magnetic field causes the plunger to rise. This unseals the valve and allows the flow of liquid or fluid to pass through.


If you need more information of 2 way solenoid valve, please do not hesitate to visit Shako Co. Ltd. – they are the professional manufacturer of specializing in solenoid valves. You can find kinds of quality solenoid valves and air cylinders there. Get more details, welcome to contact with Shako!


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The Advantages of Heat Shrink Tooling

On December 20, 2018, in Industrial Supply, Manufacturer, by Jasmie K.

Heat shrink tooling is considered one of the best methods for high-performance machining. The mold and die industry was the first segment of the manufacturing market to look for more precise tool holder options, due to the need for a slim nose and long reach. Today, every segment of manufacturing can benefit from the advantages of shrink fit tooling.


Toolholder Selection

When looking for toolholder solutions for any type of machining, it is always good to focus on the three main features that a toolholder must bring you:


  1. Rigidity

Rigidity comes from sufficient taper contact and proper clamping of the toolholder in the machine tool spindle.


  1. Accuracy

Accuracy comes from minimal run-out at the cutting edge of the cutting tool when clamped in the holder.


  1. Balance

Balance comes from a balanced assembly of the toolholder (including all accessories such as pull-studs) and cutting tool combination.


You may also often think about the following:


Geometry of Toolholder

Geometry is important to avoid collisions with the workpiece. In regards to the EDM process, electrodes must be machined accurately and efficiently. Oftentimes, deep ribs are required in the part process and may present challenges. Also, deep cavities such as large door panel or bumper molds require deep reach with extreme clearances.


Cleanliness of The Toolholder

Cleanliness is required to avoid excessive run-out, especially when machining graphite.


Extending Cutting Tool Life

Since high-end cutting tools are needed to obtain the best performance in the shortest time possible, a toolholder that extends cutting tool life can be advantageous. These cutting tools often have exotic coatings that lend to an expensive price.


Surface Finish At Higher Speeds And Feeds

Some toolholders are used with lower depth-of-cuts, which translates into better surface finishes. This makes balance even more important to minimize vibration at the cutting edge of the cutting tool. Also, proper chip evacuation provides better finishes.


Shrink Fit Advantages

There are 10 inherent benefits that a good shrink fit chuck can offer:


  1. Unsurpassed Accuracy

A properly produced shrink fit chuck should be able to guarantee 0.00012” (3 microns) maximum run-out at three times the cutting tool diameter.


  1. Availability Of Slim Profiles

Shrink fit chucks are available with three-degree draft angles and very slim profiles. They can also be modified to be straight walled, if needed, in order to prevent toolholder collision with the workpiece.


  1. Gripping Torque

A shrink fit chuck grips the cutting tool 360 degrees around the shank. This leads to a very high gripping torque that prevents the cutting tool from moving during roughing or finishing operations.


  1. Extended Reach Options

Shrink fit chucks can use shrink fit extensions that provide the user with many options with standard products. When machining deep cavities, one can place shrink fit extensions into standard shrink fit chucks, getting unsurpassed toolholder lengths with very little run-out.


  1. Balance Repeatability And Balanceable Options

Shrink fit chucks can offer some of the best balance repeatability of any tool holding system on the market, since there are no moving parts. In many cases, if a shop purchases a properly balanced shrink fit chuck with correct accessories (such as pull-studs) and uses good cutting tools without inherent unbalance (such as flats or unequal spacing), then they can often have good balance characteristics for running at high speeds without doing an additional fine-tune balancing.


  1. Reduction Of Tool Changing Time And Less Toolholder Accessory Inventory

Nothing beats the tool change time of shrink fit chucks if the process is joined with a capable inductive shrink fit machine. Tool changes can be done in 5 to 10 seconds, and most importantly, consistently. This allows the toolholder assembly to be in the machine making chips more of the time, rather than out of the machine waiting to be changed. Also, a shop needs very little additional toolholder accessory inventory (i.e., collets, nuts, seal disks, etc.). This simplifies the process.


  1. Cleanliness Of Setup

A shrink fit chuck typically is a sealed system by design. Therefore, the introduction of contaminants in the bore is minimized. If contaminants are introduced to the bore of a toolholder, oftentimes run-out accuracy is compromised.


  1. Coolant Options

Shrink fit chucks have convenient methods to deliver coolant down to the cutting edge of the cutting tool. This helps with the proper removal of chips and can also aid in providing better finishes.


  1. Consistency Of Setup

Shrink fit holders provide the great repeatability from toolholder setup to toolholder setup. This is especially beneficial for those shops running lights out. For example, all toolholder setup operators set the toolholders the same with shrink fit holders. There are no variables—such as over-tightening or under-tightening a collet nut or not cleaning out a chuck sufficiently.


  1. Availability Of Shrink Chucks

Most of the major toolholder builders in the world now offer shrink fit chucks as a standard.


If you have requirement of shrink fit chucks, I recommend you to visit Shin-Yain Industrial Co., Ltd. – they are the professional manufacturer of specializing in tool holders, collet chucks, boring heads, and more. Now, check out SYIC’s website for more details!


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Learn more information of watch parts, let’s start with a rudimentary breakdown of a watch’s parts. The graphic below shows the elements that nearly every watch will have.

Illustration of Watch Parts

Illustration of Watch Parts from Bespoke Unit


The case holds the inner working parts of the watch. Depending on the style of the watch, the case is usually made of stainless steel, because steel is resilient, handles light shocks that the watch could receive, and doesn’t tarnish. Cases can also be made of precious metals like gold or platinum, and can even be made of plastic in sports watches. The case can also come in different ?nishes like high-polish, smooth, matte, or a combination of any of those. The case also contains the movement itself, be it electronic (quartz) or automatic (self-winding).



The lugs are where the case of the watch connects to the strap or metal bracelet of the watch, by use of metal spring bars.



The crown is what is used to change the time. Some watches offer a date window and a second’s indicator, which are engaged by pulling the crown out. Crowns on water-resistant watches screw down into the case. The crown can have embellishments like precious stones, to indicate luxury and attention to detail.


Strap / Buckle

The strap/buckle secures the watch to your wrist and there are a number of materials commonly used for these parts. Leather straps range from calfskin to lizard and more exotic offerings like ostrich, alligator, crocodile, and even toad. Instead of a strap, a metal bracelet is a popular option. Other options are nylon straps (for sportiness), satin straps (for dressiness), and rubber straps (for diving/watersports). Most watches allow straps and bracelets to be interchangeable so you can dress it up or down when you want to change the look of your watch.



The hands, usually broken down into hours and minutes, indicate the time. The hour hand is usually shorter in size than the minute hand. The hands can also have a slight design to them.


Other more complicated watches, such as chronographs (stop watches / timers), may have additional hands for their other functions, known as “complications”.



The watch bezel is the outer ring of the case that connects to the lugs. It is typically a ?at-edged surface, but can also be rounded. The watch bezel can also have embellishments, like precious gemstones in upscale watches, and may be a different metal than the case itself, as in some two-tone watches.



The crystal protects the dial and hands from dust and dirt, allowing the time to be visible. Although it is termed a crystal, it may NOT be made of actual crystal, but plastic. Modern times have made sapphire crystal very popular as it is more scratch-resistant and durable.


Dial / Face

The dial is where the watch can be the most expressive. It is the ?at surface beneath the crystal, and can come in many color options, textures, and materials. Dials can use Roman numerals, Arabic numbers, or even more simple stick bar markers to indicate the time.


Read until here, have you understood well the details of watch parts? If you have demands of custom watch bezel, I recommend you to visit a Taiwan OEM machining company, Sharp-eyed Precision Parts Co., Ltd. They specialize in precision CNC machining and can give you best-quality custom machined parts. Now, check out their website and contact with Sharp-eyed Precision Parts for more details!


Article Source: Bespoke Unit

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Butt weld fittings are one of the most popular connection types in pipeline systems. It has always been required in large quantities in different industries, and especially for the large diameter pipelines.


What is Butt Weld Fittings?

Butt weld is to connect pipes or fittings ends by welding. It’s a weldable steel pipe fitting that would allow branching off, allowing for change of direction of flow, attaching auxiliary equipment, or reduce the size of the pipe.


In the case of forged steel butt weld fittings, you would find them to be manufactured according to ANSI/ASME B16.9.


Also Known By Welded Pipe Fittings

Butt weld fittings would also be referred to as welded pipe fittings. When these would be used in stainless steel and carbon steel, they would be able to offer certain advantages as compared to socket weld and threaded fittings. Whereas socket weld would only be available up to a specific size, you would find butt weld fittings to be available in sizes starting 1/2 inch to 72 inch.


Like general category of pipe fittings, Butt weld pipe fittings include:

  • Butt Weld Elbow In 45 Degree Or 90 Degree
  • Butt Weld Tee And Reducing Tee, Reducer, Cap, Cross


Butt Weld Elbow

Butt Weld Elbow

Butt weld elbow is to change fluid direction in pipeline systems; it has long radius (LR) and short radius (SR) types, and has different degree covers 45 degree, 90 degree and 180 degree.


Butt Weld Tee

Butt Weld Tees

Butt weld tee (equal tee) has a 90 degree branch along with a straight pipe, it will provide a connects for to install an additional equipment to a pipeline. With the tee structural, same sides of the ends could be welded to the pipe, 90 branch was left open for weld another pipe or a device.


Butt Weld Reducer

Butt Weld Reducers

Butt weld reducer has concentric reducer and eccentric reducer two types, used for adjust the fluid rate and speed, by welded a large diameter pipe on one end and a smaller diameter pipe on the other end.


Common Material Types of Butt Weld Fittings

Same with socket weld fittings, you would now be able to find butt weld fittings to be available as butt weld elbow, tee, out lets (olets), reducers, and caps. In fact, these would be some of the most common type of butt weld fitting and would be specified according to schedule of pipe and nominal pipe fittings.


  • Body Material

It includes different body materials of alloy, stainless and carbon steel butt weld fittings. Therefore, it usually uses welded or seamless pipe as the starting material. It could be manufactured by forging, with the help of multiple processes, in order to get the shape of tees and elbows, amongst the other things.


  • Stainless Steel Butt Weld Fittings Usually In Thin Thickness

Just like you would find normal pipe to be sold from Schedule 10 to Schedule 160, you would find the case to be same for butt weld fitting as well. In stainless steel, butt weld fittings have been found to be more common. This would be thanks to the cost advantage that it has to offer. Schedule 10 fittings would also be more common in stainless steel fittings.


  • Carbon Steel Butt Weld Fittings

Carbon steel butt weld fittings includes body material in ASTM A234 WPB (most commonly) and WPC, MSS-SP-75 WPHY. And thickness usually at schedule 40 steel pipe fittings, STD, or 80, where pressure class ranged with 1500 psi, 2500 psi, 3000 psi, 6000 psi and 9000 psi.


  • Alloy Steel Butt Weld Fittings

Alloy steel butt weld material usually in ASTM A234 WP1, WP5, WP9, WP11, WP22, WP91 etc.


  • Classified By Dimensions

Butt weld pipe fittings dimensions referred to the pipe dimensions standard ANSI B36.10 and B36.19.

Diameter range: 1”, 2”, 3”, 4”, 6”, 8” and up to 36”.

Thickness range: Schedule 10, schedule 40, schedule 80, XS, XXS and SCH 160


Where fitting dimensions of butt weld fittings are concerned, this would consist diameter in NPS and thickness in schedule.


Concentric reducer, eccentric reducers, long radius elbow, tees. The primary reason why these fittings would be used in construction projects is because they would play an important part in branching off, changing the direction of flow, or even mechanically joining equipment to the system. With the help of specified pipe schedule, butt weld fittings would be sold in nominal pipe sizes.


If you have requirement of butt weld fittings, I recommend you to visit Golden Highope Industrial Inc. – they are the professional manufacturer of specializing in a variety of ball valves and pipe fittings. Now, welcome to check out their website and feel free to contact with Golden Highope for more details!


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