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Air rings do more than just blow cooling air on your film. Their complex aerodynamic effects also help form and stabilize the bubble. Yet operators often misuse air rings because they don’t understand how the stabilizing function works. Here’s a practical guide to making an air ring be your trusty helper instead of an unruly troublemaker.


Understanding air-ring control eludes many blown-film operators. Even experienced operators may see air rings as erratic or mysterious. Adjustments that worked to control a problem yesterday may seem to have no effect today. Also, much of what works is based on educated guesses, not firm knowledge. Ask even experienced operators the purpose of an air ring, and the typical answer is that it is supposed to cool the bubble evenly. A more complete answer is that air rings also control bubble stability.


The mystery about air rings lies in the stabilizing function. This is partly the fault of the way operators are trained. They’re taught to use the air ring primarily to control the frost line on the bubble. Increasing air supply to the ring brings the frost line down; decreasing it allows the frost line to rise.


Too Much of A Good Thing

On a hot afternoon, the frost line can rise because of warm ambient air (that is, if you’re using tower-cooled air rather than chilled air). When the frost line rises too high, operators typically increase air delivery to the ring to increase cooling on the bubble. But turning up the air has other more subtle effects on bubble stability.


Stability is not completely controlled by the adjustable iris aperture or by any bars, rollers, boards, or other guide assemblies in the tower. Air rings also control bubble stability using a principle known as the Venturi effect, which is a partial vacuum caused by the flow of air over the bubble. So increasing or decreasing air delivery also increases or decreases this suction effect on the bubble.


Increasing air delivery tends to pull the bubble closer to the walls of the air ring. In areas where the gauge is thinnest, it may actually pull the bubble off-center until it touches the air-ring wall. Slight contact with the wall leaves a pattern of transverse stripes on the film. Heavier contact with the wall may even collapse the bubble.


This effect isn’t usually immediate unless the increase in air volume is fairly significant. More often, the process drifts gradually out of balance. The bubble may appear stable for several minutes or longer before the onset of visible problems. By then, the operator may not even be in the immediate area. It’s always good advice for operators not to go on break within 10-15 minutes of making an adjustment of air delivery to the air ring.


Read The Lips

A change in height of the main lip of the air ring can have the same delayed effect of destabilizing the bubble. Height adjustment has no effect on the volume of air, but on its velocity. Lowering the lip tends to increase the Venturi effect by increasing the speed of air flow. Conversely, raising the lip decreases the Venturi effect by slowing the air flow. This is similar to clamping your thumb over the end of a garden hose when you’re washing the car. (Your thumb narrows the opening, thereby increasing the speed of water flow while the volume remains unchanged.) Once a film line is in production, a 1/16-in. adjustment in air-ring height is significant, and a 1/8-in. adjustment may actually be enough to cause the line to go out of production and produce scrap.


To complicate matters further, many blown-film lines run dual-lip air rings. Some have adjustable inner lips, or cones, and some don’t. Any adjustment to the main (outer) lip opening will also affect the Venturi established by the height setting of the first (inner) cone. If this inner lip isn’t set within a very specific height window, a change to the main lip easily upsets the previous balance because of the combined Venturi forces from the two separate lip openings.


If the inner lip is movable, there may be a problem with its height, which is masked by the combined Venturi at the main lip. An operator may not recognize the problem or may attempt to correct it by adjusting the main lip. The operator may then find that only a slight adjustment to the main lip makes the bubble suddenly very unstable. If the operator then tries returning the main lip to the previous setting where the bubble was stable, it won’t work if the root of the problem is the height of the inner lip, not the outer one. What’s more, the overall window of adjustment becomes much tighter, so even slight changes of air delivery can easily take the line out of production.


The inner cone and main lips can also loosen over time. Thread inserts intended to keep these assemblies from moving may not be maintained regularly. When that happens, air pressure or vibration can move the lips. If operators realize this is happening, they may tape outer-lip assemblies in place. But gradual movement of the inner cone is more difficult to see. This problem can’t be fixed until the line is taken down and the air-ring lip assemblies are removed for cleaning. Restoring the inner cone closer to its original position will broaden the operating window.


Operators tend to be familiar with certain combinations of main-lip height and air pressure. If the inner ring is properly located, these habitual combinations will work. If the inner ring is not in the right position, the usual set-up combinations will not work and the window of adjustment will be smaller. Then any change to air delivery is more likely to cause problems.


What’s more, problems of air-ring movement also tend to work gradually to reduce the window of stable operation, making it more difficult for operators to determine the true cause of instability.


Air-ring operation is also difficult to learn because blown film extrusion is susceptible to ambient influences. Drafts may cause localized cooling or may draw the bubble out of concentricity with the air ring. These effects make for uneven film thickness, which leads to uneven rolls. Gauge bands will not show up on rolls made with oscillating tower assemblies because the oscillating mechanism randomizes gauge variations. They’re still there, but spread out over the roll.


Observant operators will recognize the difference in blown-film operation when ambient conditions change. The same line running the same resin and product will run very differently on a hot afternoon versus a cool morning or night. Operators who don’t follow the subtle indicators won’t be able to adjust the process before the line goes out of production.


Don’t Over-Adjust The Air

Operators should be trained to find the lip-height and air-pressure settings that initially give the widest window of control. When it’s necessary to change frost-line height, rather than adjust air delivery, it’s better for operators to look first at process conditions and then for changes in the ambient environment. The right adjustment may well be to lower the melt temperature, not raise the air delivery. Conversely, melt temperature may have to be raised again as ambient temperature drops later in the day.


If you want more consistent operation, leave air-ring settings pretty much alone once a line is in production, and work with melt temperature to control frost-line height. This approach maintains the bubble control that has been established by the Venturi in a much tighter window than will occur if you use air delivery as your primary means of adjusting frost-line height.


If you need more information about blown film air ring, I recommend that you can visit the website of Hsin Long Thread Rolling Machine Co., Ltd. – the company specializes in kinds of blown film machines and machine parts. Learn more details, welcome to contact Hsin Long at 886-6-2533861.


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Compression sock sleeves have been used in the medical field for decades to help treat symptoms related to diabetes, edema, restless leg syndrome, plantar fasciitis, carpal tunnel, patellar tendonitis, vein disorders, and more.


Just like many other forms of medical equipment, however, compression sleeves have made the jump in recent years from the medical field to the track field. These sleeves are now used by athletes and non-athletes alike to relieve various painful symptoms, provide support during and after exercise, and reduce chances of future injury.


For those seeking relief for their symptoms, there are two main options to choose from: compression socks, which provide compression from the upper calf to the foot, and compression sleeves, which end at the ankle. While it may seem that the two options are almost the same, several factors make compression sleeves a better choice, especially for those seeking relief from painful injuries and symptoms.


Here, we’ve outlined four reasons why medical-grade compression sleeves are a smarter choice than sock.


  1. They Provide Greater Relief.

For those experiencing calf or leg pain, medical-grade compression sleeves are clearly a better choice. Unlike many compression socks, medical-grade compression sleeves target leg pain specifically, offering relief for shin splints, calf strains, calf cramps, and other miscellaneous pain in the legs. The sleeves do this by supplying consistent pressure to the lower leg arteries, helping the veins push oxygen-rich blood to working muscles and push de-oxygenated blood back to the heart.


  1. They Are Cooler–Physically.

In warmer temperatures, compression socks can get uncomfortably hot–even more so when combined with exercise. Though the padding on the bottom portion of a compression sock may provide insurance against common foot conditions like plantar fasciitis, some runners find the added heat unbearable. Since a compression calf sleeve is open from the ankle to the foot, it allows airflow around the foot and therefore a more comfortable wearer experience.


  1. They Are Cooler–Aesthetically.

Many runners insist that compression socks simply aren’t as stylish as compression sleeves. Fans of track and field events will notice that among professional athletes, sleeves are clearly the preferred choice, with superstars like Chris Solinsky, Shannon Rowbury, and Paula Radcliffe sporting them during their races. Even at your local park, you may notice that runners seem to prefer the sleek, sporty appearance of a sleeve versus a sock.


  1. They Allow You To Double Up.

Many athletes are particular about their gear and don’t want to abandon it for something new. A compression sleeve allows you to experience compression without sacrificing your lucky blue socks–or whatever other footwear you prefer. For those who like to run in rain or shine, compression sleeves allow you to wear moisture-wicking socks in combination with the sleeve, so your muscles can stay supported and your feet can stay dry.


If you want to get more information about compression sock sleeves, I recommend that you can visit Footland Inc. – the company specializes in kinds of socks, such as jogging socks, marathon socks, mountaineering socks, and much more. Learn more details, please do not hesitate to contact Footland at 886-4-8761663.



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Polypropylene sheet is a flexible and beneficial engineering plastic with a wide variety of uses within different industries. It has replaced many other materials and creates improved performance and cost reduction for most component manufacturers. Producers create plastics that are slightly oversize in thickness or diameter. The oversize tolerance is designed to help clients to produce accurate items with the right size and remove any small flaws.


There are two grades of polypropylene materials. They include photopolymer which is a harder and more rigid grade and is available in beige and natural color. It is available in many sizes. The copolymer is more flexible and malleable with low-temperature impact performance. It is available in many colors.


Advantages of Using PP Plastic Sheets


  • It is economical and has equal performance of other materials at a much lower rate,
  • The material is light-weight and with a density of only 0.91gcm3. The plastic can float and help in handling of large components,
  • It is almost impossible for this material to bond with current adhesives although in the future this could be possible. Therefore, the material can be welded with simple welding tool and rod.
  • It has very low moisture absorption at 0.03 which can improve and component and product stability; it helps with bacterial resistance.
  • It is easier to reshape and form a PP Sheet which makes it possible for the material to be used in the fabrication sector. It produces high-quality items that are used in many industries including automotive.
  • The material has good chemical and acid resistance that helps in the production of chemical and acid tanks and acid resistant seals.


Applications for Polypropylene Sheet


  • The item is used for lining or complete manufacture of chemical and acid tanks,
  • PP Sheet is applied in swimming pools due to its chlorine and water resistance abilities. Also, it is resistant to acids. Hence used in battery boxes.
  • Sometimes it is used as chopping boards within the packing sector as it aids when sharpened cutters permeate the cardboard and acts as a substrate for the cutters edge,
  • It is used within rooms for cladding walls and creating a lasting barrier that is both resistant and tough to strong cleaning fluids,
  • It is known for its many uses within the prosthetic field since it can be heated and molded to a good shape to enable leg, foot or any other limb support to be produced accurately.


Manufacturing Procedures for These Materials


The item is produced in two distinct ways namely: extruded sheet and pressed. Pressed process involves planning the material while extruded involved heating polymer to melting point through dies or rollers to produce accurate sheets. Pressed items are quite costly, although the process does not involve the stress involved in extrusion. It produces a material that is more stable, and the machines have intricate components that remain more accurate due to less internal stress.


In conclusion, PP sheet is a low-weight material which offers considerable resistance to impact acid or chemical attack. It has less moisture absorption and can be used for food applications. Moreover, it provides excellent electrical insulation and resists cracking, but it is not hard to bond.


Where Can You Get These Plastic Sheets?

If you need lots of PP sheets or other plastic sheets, I recommend that you can visit the website of Marathon Enterprise Co., Ltd. – the company specializes in kinds of plastic vacuum forming products, such as PP sheets, plastic blister, plastic tray, IC tray, plastic plate, and much more products. Get more details, please do not hesitate to contact Marathon at 886-3-3590801.


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The options for ball valves are seemingly endless. To select a ball valve, decisions have to be made. Which seat material? What kind of end connections? Full, reduced, or standard port ball? 2-way or multiport? What about packing? Finally, how many pieces?


In this post, you can learn more about when a 3 piece ball valve should be used.


What Is A 3 Piece Ball Valve?

Ball valves come in one, two, or three pieces. 1 pc ball valves are inexpensive and generally not repaired. 2 pcs ball valves consist of two separate pieces, with the connection between them being either threaded or a bolt and flange assembly.


As you may have guessed, a 3 piece ball valve consists of three pieces, two end caps and a body. The end caps are welded, threaded, or flanged to connect to the pipe on either side.


Why Use A 3 Piece Ball Valve?

For processes that put heavy demands on valves, having a 3 piece valve is more convenient than 1 or 2 pcs ball valve s. When seats and seals need to be routinely replaced, having three pieces allows for easy disassembly, servicing and reassembly without having to do major cutting on the pipe.


Three piece ball valves also allow for elastomers to be changed accommodating different process conditions, temperatures, pressures and flows.


Need to weld the valve in place? Another benefit is being able to move the body with trim out of the way while welding, ensuring the internals stay intact.


What’s The Big Difference Between 2 And 3 Piece Ball Valves (Other Than The Obvious…)?

2 pcs ball valves were also designed with maintenance in mind. The big difference between the two is that the body on the 3 piece valve can be taken out without disturbing the two end caps. A two-piece ball valve doesn’t often allow this to happen, and it’s not possible at all with a one piece ball valve.


There’s also a price difference. As noted earlier, 1 pc valves are generally of the throw away variety. Three piece valves tend to initially cost more, but can save money in the long run in terms of time spend maintaining, and ability to change seats and seals vs. replacing the valve in its entirety.


Not sure how many pieces you should select for your ball valve application? Ask TARGET VALVE about it! They are the professional ball valve manufacturer in Taiwan. You can get more choice and information about ball valve from Target Valve. Feel free to contact them at 886-4-2277-5458~9.


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You must have come across those sturdy and thick designs on baseball caps or on snap-backs. Aren’t those protruding 3d designs cool? They surely are but what goes in embroidering those designs is what we will be looking at today. The profound 3D effect comes from the use of 3d embroidery foam. This is where the name 3D puff embroidery comes from. The use of puff increases the height of design and thus, by increasing the depth, it renders the 3D-effect.
3D Puff Embroidery at Beauty Emblem Inc.

Like any technique that you are just starting at, start to 3D embroidery is also a baffling affair. But like any other skill, your way out is practicing more and identifying areas that you need to improve.


There is an ever-increasing demand for 3d designs over the past few years, especially with caps and hats. Adhering to the best practices of 3D embroidery means producing better results and low production costs and time.


Mastering 3D embroidery means having an edge over your competitors. Therefore, here are best practices for 3D embroidery:


  1. Decide Optimum Machine Speed:

Deciding an optimum machine speed is important as it has an impact on the quality of embroidered designs. Many a time you will be required to slow the speed as compared to your normal orders.


The optimum speed for each machine is different. Try few tests runs with different speeds and figure out an optimum speed that gives out the best results.


  1. Choice Of Fabric:

Avoid using delicate and slippery fabrics with 3D puffs. There are two reasons for it.

Firstly, the fabric is more susceptible to in-hoop movement while working with foam. Secondly, the stitch density in 3d puff embroidery is higher than normal designs.


Consequently, thick, and stable fabrics, like the ones in caps, are preferred. Lofty fabrics like towels also do not go well with 3D puff embroidery. Their own loft fades the 3d effect and thus fails to cater a captivating design.


  1. Choosing Sharp Needles:

When working with 3D designs, choose sharp needles which can easily make perforations through the foam. Easy and more perforations mean that foam can be easily removed afterward.


  1. Choice of Foam:

The choice of foam mainly depends on the height of design you want to embroider. The more 3d or protruded effect you want, thicker should be the foam and hence, more will be the height of design.


Thick foams, though create louder designs, are difficult to work with. The thicker a foam is, the more it hinders the smooth functioning of the machine.


Therefore, very thick foams should never be your pick. Especially when we are talking about embroidering at the commercial level.


  1. Embroider Flat Design First:

Firstly, start with normal designs on your fabric. This will be done as you would normally embroider a material. If it is a cap, which will often be the case, take care of all the important factors that play a role during embroidering a cap.


  1. Create A Stop:

Create a stop once you are done with the flat design.


Learn how to program stops in your machine as this is something you will need a lot in your career and specifically, while you are dealing with 3D puff embroidery.


On color changes, you need to make sure that machine provides proper stops.


  1. Laying The Foam:

Stick the foam on top of the fabric with either a tape or sticking spray. The purpose of this is to keep the fabric in position and resist underneath movement.


Before embroidering with satin stitches, create an outline of the design. This outline will now stabilize the area that is just going to be embroidered.


Due to the foam, there is an increased instability to the set-up. Foam is stuck to the fabric for the very same reason. Stitching an outline counteracts this innate instability by providing the ‘cut’ in foam.


  1. Remove Excess Foam:

Once the design is done, remove the excess foam. If there are little pieces of puff that are too rigid to be removed with bare hands, apply a heat source.


Use a heat gun to remove the foam. It is possible that some puff bits remain stuck. Weed them out through tweezers.


  1. Include Test Runs:

Whenever you are dealing with a new design, try sewing out some test runs. Compare different variants and finally choose what works best with the fabric and equipment.


For inexperienced embroiderers, this drill also serves as their practicing ground. It allows them to evaluate what works and what doesn’t work that well. It enables them to harness optimum conditions for the actual sew-out and for similar future jobs.


  1. Stitch Density:

Stitch density of 3D puff embroidery is kept higher than normal flat designs. When we say, high density we are essentially referring to the satin stitches that come on top of the flat design.


Underneath stitches should have a normal stitch density. Most computerized embroidery machines have this ability to manage multiple manage stitch densities and enabling you to keep underlay stitches close and tight.


Increased stitch density of top satin stitches as compare to underneath stitches, allows the design to have an enhanced “3D-ish” effect.


  1. 3D Embroidery Digitizing:

Digitizing for 3D embroidery designs are tricky as well as an integral part of the process.


Use longer stitches while working on 3D embroidery designs. Digitized designs with strong underlay border and satin stitches work best with puffs.


A digitizer should understand that not every design will work on foam. There are additional considerations that a digitizer should keep in mind while working with 3d designs. For instance, excessive underlay will not work with a 3d puff.


It is important that you work with a digitizer who knows these differences in and out and is well-adept with his job role. Try finding a digitizer who has a vast experience of working with different designs.


If you need more choice of 3D puff embroidery, I recommend that you can visit the website of BEAUTY EMBLEM INC. – the company specializes in kinds of embroidered badges for customers. Get more details, come and visit Beauty Emblem product catalog for more embroidery products.



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How Plastic Recycling Machinery Works?

On June 8, 2018, in Machine, Manufacturer, by Jasmie K.

Plastic recycling is a well-established industry that globally processes and resells several million tons of used plastic material each year. Rather than operating merely out of environmental necessity, plastic material recovery services can be both cost-efficient and productive, saving resources for a range of different manufacturing applications. The recycling and reclamation field also encompasses the industrial processes by which plastic materials are separated into their base monomers and made available for further polymerization at secondary and tertiary levels.



While the plastic recycling industry was originally focused on recovering manufacturing scraps and byproducts left over from initial plastic fabrication, present-day recycling services are capable of reclaiming heterogeneous post-consumer goods as well. The methods employed by material recovery systems tend to vary according to the type of plastic being processed, but there are some essential practices common to most recycling services. Stages such as sorting, cleaning, size reduction, separation, and pelletizing can be found in most plastic recycling operations. Likewise, the machinery used to achieve these processes generally falls into a handful of plastic recycling machinery categories.


For more information on the current state of plastic recycling, see these resources on the subject.


Sorting Equipment


Sorting and grouping plastic materials according to resin type is an important first step in the recycling process because contamination can render a batch of material un-reusable. The most frequently recycled resins, including polyethylene terephthalate (PET), high-density polyethylene (HDPE), and polyvinyl chloride (PVC), must be carefully separated from one another in order to enable further processing. Contaminants within each type of plastic must also be removed from the base resin to ensure stock purity.


Sorting machines must rapidly identify and categorize large volumes of post-consumer plastic, often under continuous input. Although there are varying degrees of technical sophistication and capacity, an advanced sorting machine can be equipped with some or all of the following features:


  • Sensors: These devices detect specific polymers within a mixed stream of plastic materials. They can be equipped with x-ray or infrared sensing that registers a polymer’s unique signature along the spectrum. Some sensors also incorporate color detection technology that sorts material according to tint and transparency.
  • Ejectors: Mechanical or precision air ejection units physically group different plastic materials according to resin types. Depending on their capacity, ejectors can often handle very high rates of input.
  • Computing Systems: Computer processing technology supplies the algorithms that are used to identify and sort different materials. These systems provide the controlling parameters for both sensor and ejector operations.
  • User Interfaces: An operator’s interface can provide machine controls and diagnostic tools for technicians. In addition, interfaces can also offer networking abilities to help integrate a sorting machine and make rapid adjustments to its functions.


Size Reduction Machines


Plastic materials usually need to be cut into smaller sizes in order to allow further processing and to provide easier packaging, transportation, and distribution of recycled stock. This cutting presents certain challenges, as many plastics are abrasive to metal blades and can have wide variation in their hardness, weight, and thickness. Most standard size reduction is performed by single or multi-shaft shredders, and granulators. Multi-shaft shredders perform scissor-like cutting with a series of rotating blades that can handle moderately dirty or contaminated material, but are somewhat imprecise in the size of the cuts. Single shaft shredders perform more of a tearing motion, and have slower motors that lengthen blade lifespan. They can also handle dirty or abrasive material and usually have adjustable or replaceable blades.


Granulators are composed of a rotor attached to blades that rotate within a chamber containing a grid floor. Their capacity for processing plastic material depends on the speed of the rotor, angle of the cutting blades, spacing of the grid, and the shape of the rotor. Granulators are usually sturdy machines, capable of relatively rapid cutting rates, and the presence of the grid allows for more precise control over the size of cuts. Granulator blades typically need to be replaced regularly over the course of operations.


Washing Equipment


After the plastic has been cut into smaller pieces, or “flakes,” the stock usually needs to be washed in order to remove lingering dirt or attachments. Paper, glue, sand, and grit are some of the common elements targeted in the washing process, which can be accomplished using water baths, friction washers, or a washing line. The washing line applies a continuous hot spray over a stream of plastic material, removing some or all of the labels and dirt attached to the plastic surface. Detergents and disinfecting agents are often included in this process to improve the level of cleaning.


Separating Equipment


To reduce the potential for stock contamination most recycled plastic undergoes separation treatments, which work to remove any attachments or non-reusable materials that may be present in a batch of flakes. Most separation processes can be categorized as “wet” or “dry” methods. Float tanks are the most common wet method, separating material based on density and whether it sinks or floats, while hydrocyclones use centrifugal force to divide material according to weight.


Among dry methods, air classification differentiates between types of plastic based on the ratio of flake surface area to mass, meaning thicker materials are sifted away from thin ones. Mechanical separators usually divide flakes according to size, and sometimes shape. These machines can be designed with flat, circular, or inclined configurations. Laser spectral analyzers are most advanced machines that use spectroscopic detection to determine precise levels of contamination in a given batch. Alternative devices can employ ultraviolet or fluorescent light to separate plastic according to color or light absorption levels. Melt separation machines move plastic flakes along a conveyor or hot roller while heat is applied to separate material according to melting point.


Pelletizing Machines


Pelletizing reclaimed plastic is the final step in most recycling processes. Converting post-consumer plastic into pellets allows for easier distribution and remanufacturing, and ultimately benefits the speed and effectiveness of reintroducing recycled plastic into industrial manufacturing. After sorting, drawing, separating, and drying the reclaimed material, the flake stock is ready to be extruded into pellets.


Typically, single or double screw extruders are used at this stage. The ratio between the length of the extruder screw and its diameter, as well overall screw design, can vary depending on the type of resin being processed. Single screw extruders rely on pumping action and shear to shape plastic, while double screw extruders perform more of a mixing function with lower shearing force to create a compound material. Ventilation and vacuum pumps may be required to regulate the degassing effects. Once the reclaimed plastic has been pelletized, it is ready for distribution and remanufacturing.


If you need more information about plastic recycling machinery, you can come and visit Song Ming Machinery Ind., Ltd. – the company specializes in kinds of recycling machines including cooling blender, PVC pelletizing plant, granulator, shredders, etc. Learn more details, contact with Song Ming right away.



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Mount Type

If you’re lucky enough to have a fishing-specific kayak, you probably already have some rod holders installed, as they usually come installed with the purchase. Maybe you’re looking to add a couple of extras, or maybe you have a sit-on-top kayak without any holders.


The main difference between kayak fishing rod holders lies in how they are mounted to the kayak. The four types are flush mount, adjustable, clamp and crate compatible.


  • Flusounh MT

Flush mount rod holders must be mounted below the surface of a sit-on-top kayak. The handle of the rod will sit below the surface, while the reel and everything above the reel sit above. This type of rod holder is preferred by many for its sturdiness, clean appearance and clutter-free feel.


When hooking or trolling for big fish, nothing beats a flush mount rod holder. There are no weak parts or adjustable pieces that may shift upon strike.


The downside of flush mount holders is they sit relatively low to the surface of the water, being that they are flush with the surface of the kayak. Some fishermen prefer to raise their rod holder up a few inches to create a larger angle between the line and the water. It’s also a bit easier to turn around and grab the rod from the holder behind your seat when it’s higher.


  • Adjustable

Many of the best kayak fishing rod holders available on the market are adjustable in nature. The attachment point is usually a round or rectangular plate of reinforced nylon composite at the bottom of the holder. You will have to drill into the plate to mount them. A small length of nylon typically extends below the deck of the kayak for support.


The adjustable nature of these holders is in a ball and socket or a rotating wheel, both locking into place. Choose the angle and direction of each rod holder for maximum control, performance, and security. All with all things mechanical, the more pieces there are the more chances the system has to fail. In some instances, adjustable holders can move out of place when under the force of a striking fish or sudden jolt.


  • Clamp

Occasionally, you will see rod holders that mount to kayaks via clamps. This would be ideal for someone who is absolutely against the idea of drilling into the deck of the kayak. If you’re renting or borrowing a kayak, or simply like being able to move the rod mount around the kayak, consider a clamp mount rod holder.


  • Crate Compatible

If you haven’t heard of kayak fishing crates, definitely check them out! They are loved by many in the fishing world. Some holders are meant to be mounted in a crate. Many times, these holders come with three rod slots on a single piece.


Package Deals

Rod holders are frequently sold individually, but also sometimes in pairs. Most fishermen will use more than one rod on any given day on the water, and in this case, there’s really no point choosing two different rod holders. In addition, package deals are a great value. Manufacturers typically offer the holders together at a few dollars cheaper than the price they’re sold at individually.


Rod Capacity

Many rod holders you’ll see on the market will hold only single rods. This is ideal for a kayak fisherman with only a few rods at any given time, who wants to be able to either mount them in a unique pattern or to adjust them individually.


As mentioned above, some holders that mount to crates supply three rod slots. If you’re considering going the way of the kayak crate, look into multiple rod holders.



Kayak fishing crates are awesome because they offer storage and rod mounting capability in one inexpensive package. You have the option to make your own (which is more customizable) or buy a package. If you buy a package, it will typically come with the crate, multiple rod holders, attachment pieces and sometimes extra goodies like pliers and fish removing tools.


If you need more information about flush mount rod holders, I recommend that you can visit BroadPlast Industrial Co. – the company specializes in kinds of kayak deck hardware. Get more details please feel free to check out BroadPlast product catalog and contact them at 886-4-26871277.


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When you hear the term Reverse Osmosis, aka RO, the first thing you probably think of is an “under-the-sink” home water filtration system. And yes, there’s no doubt that residential RO systems are a popular choice for crisp clean home drinking water and have been for some time.


However, since the first modern RO membranes were developed in the 1960’s Reverse Osmosis technology has slowly garnered recognition as a leading method for desalinating and purifying water in many commercial and industrial settings as well.


Below are a few of the industries and commercial processes that commonly utilize RO technology and their common use cases:


The Food and Beverage Industry


  • Coffee Shops and Restaurants

Clean purified water is essential for a delicious cup of coffee or espresso. Plain tap water taste bad and is sure to turn away potential repeat customers, not to mention what it will do to the equipment. Lime scale deposits and build-up from untreated tap water will damage espresso machines as well as any type of equipment that heats water, and ice makers as well.


  • Bottled Water Companies

Reverse Osmosis, along with distillation, have become the primary methods used in today’s bottled water industry. Usually if you read the fine print on your bottled water container it will list the purifying methods used.


Pharmaceutical Water for Injection

In the pharmaceutical industry makers must use water for injection (Water for Injection or WFI) and for cleaning that adhere to very strict guidelines, also known as United States Pharmacopeia (USP). Reverse Osmosis is an approved process for purifying water that meet these guidelines.


Boiler Feed Water to Create Power

  • Thermal Power Plants
  • Pulp & Paper Production
  • Petrochemical and Electrochemical Processes
  • Laundries and Cleaners
  • Building Material Production
  • Waste Disposal and Incineration
  • Plastics Manufacturing
  • Hospitals
  • Automotive Industry
  • Agriculture
  • Steel Mills
  • And many more…


These and other industries often require large amounts of energy, either – as in the case of power plants – to light up an entire city, or to perform whatever process they are engaged in, i.e. producing paper. However, electrical energy is often too expensive to use in such large quantities, so to combat this they will turn to boiling water and use steam to create the energy needed.


If impurities such as magnesium, calcium, aluminum, iron, and silica are present in the boiler’s feed water many issues can arise. As the water is heated these elements will compound and can create a damaging buildup known as scale both inside the boiler and also in the turbine pipes. In worst case scenarios where scale goes unnoticed it can cause ruptures in the boiler wall, forcing unexpected outages and costly repairs. Detrimental damage to the turbines can result as well.


Semiconductor Manufacturing

At a very high-level, the semiconductor industry uses very precise procedures to produce packaged integrated circuits, or commonly known as chips or microchips.


These microchips are used in every electronic device we use today and as our computing devices have become smaller and more powerful, chips have also become smaller while containing more transistors, capacitors, and interconnections. Therefore, creating today’s chips can sometimes call for hundreds of steps and weeks to complete. These steps typically involve rinsing stages where residue has to be removed; if the rinse solution used contains any impurities it can render the chip completely useless.


This is where semiconductor manufacturers will use Reverse Osmosis, along with other techniques, to create what is known as ultra-pure water. Ultra-pure water has been purified to the point that is can no longer be consumed by humans. It is said to taste more like acid and will actually strip your body of vital nutrients as opposed to replacing them. However, this is what is needed to rinse the silicon wafers to produce the highly precise microchips used in today’s electronic devices.


Municipal Waste Water

With fresh water becoming more of a concern for urbanized areas, municipalities have to treat their waste water for reuse. Because Reverse Osmosis as become a such an energy efficient solution many municipalities are using it to recycle their local waste water to avoid local water shortages.



These are just some of the commercial and industrial situations where reverse osmosis can be used. Basically RO saves energy, uses less water, and protects equipment without using harsh or dangerous chemicals. If you are in need of boiler feed or purified water for almost any large scale commercial use, reverse osmosis should be one of your first options.


If you need more information about commercial RO system or RO water purifier, I recommend that you can visit the website of Triwin Watertec Co., Ltd. – the company is the well-known RO system manufacturer in Taiwan. Learn more details, try to contact TRIWIN at 886-4-25311188.


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What is a Floor Fan?

A floor fan is a type of fan designed to sit on the floor. In most cases, these are pedestal type fans, but floor fans can also include box fans. All that is really required is that the fan be able to sit on the floor without tipping over.


Most all fans work on the same general principle. The head of the fan is made of curved blades that spin, and the spinning action draws air from the back of the fan in through the blades then out again in the front. This disturbance of air pressure creates a breeze. Anyone sitting in the path of the breeze will typically begin to cool off, because the breeze from the floor fan will begin drying body perspiration, and in the process will help lower body temperature. The amount of air circulation produced by a floor fan depends on both the size of the blades and the size of the motor that turns them.


Due to safety concerns, the blades of a floor fan are enclosed in screens made of plastic or wire. This makes it less likely that fingers will be exposed to rotating blades. In most cases, the screen can be removed so that the blades can be periodically dusted and cleaned.


Many floor fans have a pedestal design, which is a type of fan with a tall narrow base that is usually height adjustable. The advantage to this type of floor fan is that even though it is designed to sit on the floor, the actual head of the fan that produces the air can be adjusted so that air is being blown above floor level. This is usually preferable, because the airflow can be set so that it is at the body level of those sitting or standing inside the room. In addition, pedestal fans usually have oscillating heads, which means that in addition to spinning blades, the heads actually turn from side to side to distribute the airflow all over the room.


A box floor fan is a type of fan with a box like shape which is designed to sit directly on the floor. At their base, they typically have two support strips that serve as legs, and keep the fan from tipping over. The fan heads inside a box floor fan are usually bigger than heads in a pedestal fan, but they do not oscillate, and the only way to adjust their height is to put them up on a table. One advantage to box fans is that they can usually be placed inside open windows, which during early morning and evening, allows the fan to draw in cooler air that is outside. When it is very hot outside, putting the fan inside a window usually has no real cooling benefit.


If you need more selection of floor fans, King Fortune Electrical Co., Ltd. will be your best choice! King Fortune is one of the largest fan manufacturers in the industry. You can find kinds of fans including desk fan, industrial fan, iram fan, wall fan, etc. Learn more details, please do not hesitate to check out King Fortune product catalog and feel free to contact them.


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Ever since you were a little kid, you’ve probably wondered: what’s the deal with men’s bikes being shaped differently than women’s bikes? And, if you’re a little more observant, you’ve probably also wondered: why is that men’s bikes have a top tube that’s parallel to the ground and women’s bikes DON’T have that top tube, when the fact is… if men fall on that top tube, they’re going to be in extreme pain? Wouldn’t it make more sense for men’s bikes to have a lower top tube?


In this post, we’ll look at the odd history of bikes, why traditional men’s bikes are different than traditional women’s bikes, and why there’s really no reason at all for men’s bikes to shaped dramatically different than women’s bikes. Hopefully by the end, we’ll answer the question, “Why are women’s bikes shaped differently than men’s bikes?”


We’ll also throw in some fascinating historical facts, like how bikes are tied to women’s suffrage, why “shrink it and pink it” was a stupid and offensive marketing tactic, and what to look for if you’re a female who’s in the market for a bicycle.


The Quick Explanation

You’re in a rush; we get it. Here’s the boiled-down, “just-the-facts” explanation:


Men’s bike frames traditionally include a “top tube” that runs horizontal to the ground. That top tube connects the front of the bike to the seat. Women’s bikes traditionally had a top tube that does not run horizontal to the ground, and is instead sloped downward as it extends towards the back of the bike. A bike frame with a top-tube that slopes down and back—as traditional women’s bike frames often did—is called a “step-through” frame.


When bikes first became popular—decades after they were actually invented—women were basically required to wear traditional dresses and long skirts, and those dresses and long skirts were impossible to wear when riding a bike with a horizontal top tube. The step-through frame allowed them to get onto and ride bikes safely and easily. It has nothing to do with women’s bodies or men’s bodies—the bicycle was designed solely because women were required to wear dresses at the time bicycles became popular.


That’s the short of it, but here’s some fascinating history behind the men’s/women’s bike idea—and a lot of hokum, as well. Well-made men’s bikes do differ from well-made women’s bikes, but a lot of what we refer to as “men’s bikes” or “women’s bikes” is just marketing (or, in simpler language, “lies”).


Here’s the full(er) story.


The Longer Explanation

To understand the full story, we’ll need to start with…


Bicycle Frames and Frame Shapes

If you’re an inventor or an engineer or a manufacturer of bicycles, you’re first goal is to make a bicycle that is sturdy—or, at the very least, something that’s not going to fall apart underneath a rider’s legs. So, among other things, bike manufacturers make frames so that they are:


  • Constructed of tubes, instead of full-metal bars. Tubes feature a more aggressive strength-to-weight ratio that full-weight beams, and they’re an obvious choice for frames; and


  • Geometrically sound. The most sturdy and strong shape a bicycle frame can take is what’s called a “diamond frame,” which is two triangle shapes (or, shapes that are almost triangles) put together.


As you can see, they’re not perfect triangles, but the diamond shape creates a solid base around which to build a bike. This is the frame on a traditional “men’s bike.” It’s strong and durable, and it’s the strongest type of frame to cycle on.


(Keep in mind, there’s some variation on this shape in the bike world—mountain bikes, for example, don’t typically utilize a diamond frame, as they have other components that provide strength and stability—but as a general rule of thumb, the diamond-shape frame is one of the strongest way to create a bike frame.)


So diamond frames are stronger than step-through frames. They have other advantages over step-through frames, as well, and we’ll discuss that later. But first, we should look at the question:


Why Didn’t Women Just Wear Pants?

If diamond frames are better than step-through frames, why didn’t women in the late 1800s just wear pants and jump on a men’s bike with a diamond frame? For this answer, we’ll need to take a closer look at history.


Bikes experienced a boom in popularity during the late 1800s, and what was once a novelty for the super-super-rich, became a common means of transportation and recreation for the super-rich and the merely well-to-do. Gender roles during this time were pretty severe (read: extremely severe) and not only were women not allowed out and about without chaperones—doing so would cause the sort of scandal where your friends and family would turn their backs and ignore the woman brazen enough to do so—but standards of dress were pretty harsh, as well. Women wore long, heavy, ankle-length dresses made from reams and reams of fabric. The idea of women wearing pants was basically unthinkable, and “bloomers”—loose, ankle-length pants worn under a shorter dress—were a shocking development when they were created in 1851. It wasn’t until 50 years later that pants would start showing up in the female fashion scene, when in 1913 Vogue magazine featured a cover with a woman wearing pants. It took half-a-century for American culture to soften to the idea of women wearing pants, and even then, in 1913 with that Vogue cover, it was still pretty scandalous.


This is all to say: in the 1800s, when bikes were becoming popular, women weren’t getting on them, because restrictive social norms dictated that they couldn’t wear all that clothing and do so. Mounting a bike with all the clothing was difficult, and riding a bike with all that clothing was dangerous. So women didn’t really ride bikes until a bike was invented that would allow women to wear long dresses on a bike.


Think about that for a second: it was so unthinkable for a woman to wear something other than a long dress, that instead of simply putting on pants, women waited until a bicycle manufacturer created and sold a bicycle that could be worn by women wearing traditional dress. It was scandalous that women would wear man-ish clothing to ride bikes, so a very clever bicycle-maker created bicycles that would allow women to adhere to absurd rules about women and wardrobe, and still use and enjoy bicycles.


And, according to Susan B. Anthony—one of the activists who helped secure voting rights for women—whoever it was who designed a bicycle for women did more to further women’s rights than most other folks. She’s quoted as saying, “I think that the bicycle has done more to emancipate women than any other thing in the world. I rejoice each time I see a woman riding by on a bicycle. It creates for her a feeling of self-reliance, and of independence, the moment she gets in the seat.” Work hard, engineers, because your inventions can help shape the world!


So, that’s the deal with step-through bikes frames, and how they came to be the go-to bike frame for women. But you may be wondering: if women are no longer socially required to wear long dresses and pants are not really scandalous anymore…


Why Are There Still Step-Through Bike Frames?

Believe it or not, while the birth of the step-through frame has its origin in oppressive gender norms, there are some pros—and some cons—associated with the step-through bicycle frame. We’ll start with the pros.


Advantages of Step-Through Frames

There are fewer pros, so they’re easier to list:


  • They’re easy to mount and dismount. This is, far and away, this biggest advantage of a bicycle with a step-through frame, and it’s why they’re still used today: they’re a great option for people who don’t have a full range of motion. If you’re an older rider, or if you have difficult lifting your leg over a horizontal top tube, a step-through frame is a god-send. For riders with limited ranges of motions, it’s literally the difference between being able to bike and not being able to bike.


  • They’re a great option for folks riding with parcels and stop-and-then-go traffic. If you’ve got your bike loaded up with bags and boxes and the like, it can be a great advantage to hop off the seat and put your feet steadily on the ground.


  • They have their advantages! And, finally—they really are a better option for people wearing skirts! That’s why they were originally made, and if you’re in long, flowing robes, a step-through bike is that way to go! You’ll notice that a lot of bikes in bike shares have step-through frames, and that’s a great feature, because many of the riders using these bikes will be in skirts or dresses or otherwise-restrictive business-wear.


Disadvantages of Step-Through Frames

There are three main advantages to step-through, but there are a lot of disadvantages.


  • They usually heavier. Remember above, when we mentioned that the diamond-shaped frame is the sturdiest type of bike frame? Because step-through bikes aren’t as “integrally sturdy,” they need to be manufactured from more, and heavier, materials. That’s not a great thing if you’re looking for speed, and that makes them a bad option for racing bikes, which are designed to as light as possible, and not weigh a gram more than they need to do. Bike weight in a race is a big deal.


  • They’re not a good fit for races, but they’re also not a good fit for hills. When bikers pedal uphill, they pull a lot of pressure on the frame, and the frames “flexes” a little bit. In a diamond frame, that “flex” is absorbed throughout the frame (although not fully—you can still feel a diamond frame flex if you charge up a hill). The structure of a step-through isn’t durable enough for that flexing, and it can feel very wobbly—and unsafe—when used on hills.


  • They’re difficult to accessorize. If you want to bike without a backpack or any kind of baggage, you’ll still want to bring a water bottle and perhaps a small pump. Step-throughs have fewer locations to add accessories, and that’s a drawback for many bikers.


  • They’re harder to transport via car. Most bikes racks built for cars are designed to carry bicycles that feature a horizontal frame, and not a step-through frame, and that can make transporting a step-through, whether to a race or a pleasure ride in a state park, a difficult ordeal. There are “frame adapters” available, and they’re a low-cost fix, but they can be a hassle. You can also use a roof rack for step-throughs, but they’re usually on the expensive side.


  • They’re a pain to keep upright if you use the top tube to balance the bikes between your legs when you’re stopped. It’s a small consideration, but it’s something a lot of people do.


The bottom line is that step-throughs are a very, very bad option for high-performance bikes. If you’re interested in racing, or touring, or commuting to work on a route that features hills, a step-through isn’t a great idea. However, for comfort rides or leisure rides—a carefree roll to the beach or to a near neighbor’s house—they can be great. Lots of cruisers feature step-through frames, and that’s part of their appeal. If you’re considering a new bike purchase, know what you’ll need the bike for, and that’ll help you decide on what kind of bike frame you’ll need.


Mixte Frames

While we’re here and while we’re discussing bicycle frames, there’s one type of frame we should probably mention: it’s called the mixte frame (pronounced “mix-tee”), and it looks like this:

Maxway Mixte Frame


The mixte frame is kind of a hybrid between the diamond frame and the step-through frame. These are a little more sturdy (although not sturdy enough for racing), and while they’re not really manufactured anymore, we’re seeing them pop up because of their vintage appeal (plus, they look pretty rad). You may see these on bikes that have been around and survived for decades, or you might see these on newer city bikes, where they’re a good fit for relaxed urban cycling.


So How Do Modern Men’s and Women’s Bikes Differ?

So, the historical reason for the difference between men’s and women’s bikes was based on antiquated social norms and restrictive clothing, and not on any sort of logic about what would be a good frame design for women vs. what would be a good frame design for men. So now that we’ve made some strides in terms of gender equality, how are modern bikes created for the different physical structures between men and women? How did bicycle companies create “women’s bikes” with the comfort and capability of real women in mind?


At first, they didn’t. Manufacturers simply made men’s bikes in smaller sizes and marketed them as women’s bikes, in what was coined the “shrink it and pink it” marketing strategy. This was, of course, a really stupid and boorish idea, and it didn’t do anyone any good. Female cyclists wanted high-performance bicycles that were capable of high-speed, high-intensity cycling, and the shrunken bikes they made were uncomfortable and ill-suited for the female form. Marketers eventually took feedback from their female customers and wised up, and came up with the modern “women’s bike.” It features a frame geometry that is more suited to the female form, by featuring:


  • A slightly different frame geometry, including shorter top tubes, to account for the average woman having longer leg-length-to-torso-length ratio than men and also shorter arms;


  • Narrower handlebars, as women tend to have slimmer shoulders than men;


  • Thinner grips and smaller gears and brake levers, as women’s hands are typically smaller than men’s hands;


  • A broader saddle to account for wider hips (although many competitive female cyclists use a much narrower saddle—one that is very similar to men’s saddles).


These are all generalizations, of course—there are plenty of tall women, thin-hipped women, women with big hands, women with short legs, and so on, and they choose to ride “men’s” bikes—and we’re putting “men’s” in air quotes—because that’s what works for their bodies. Each biker, regardless of their gender, has to personalize his/her own ride and find something that fits. If you have a “non-standard” body type, try not to get stuck on “gendered” bicycles, and keep looking until you find a model that works for your physique. Many people go with “standard” models—that is, unisex models—and ditch the whole “men’s and women’s” issue completely.


There You Have It

The initial differences between men’s and women’s bikes were not based on differences on the male and female physique, and were instead based on ridiculous gender requirements. Modern men’s and women’s bikes look very, very similar—in fact, many new bikers actually have a difficult time telling them apart—but they each have unique design characteristics to account for the differences between the male and female body. And, many people ditch the “gendered” bike idea entirely, and buy a standard/unisex bike and simply get it sized properly. Now you know!


If you have any interest in mixte frame or other bike frames, I recommend that you can visit the website of Maxway Cycles Co., Ltd. – the Taiwan manufacturer specializes in kinds of high quality bicycle frames. Get more details please do not hesitate to contact with Maxway.


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